Alchemists believe …دی 18, 1399 1399-10-18 12:07
Alchemists believe …
Alchemists believe …
Alchemists believed that by trying and conducting various experiments, any substance could eventually be converted to the desired substance. (Including lead to silver or copper to gold) or by mixing certain materials in certain proportions, materials can be obtained that convert base metals to gold and silver. Although the Egyptian alchemists were unable to convert base metals to gold or silver, in the course of these efforts they were able to obtain some chemicals, especially many salts, and to purify them by methods such as sublimation, calcination, distillation, and solubility. , Crystallization and…, which is the basis for the separation of chemicals from each other.
Alchemists in Islamic Civilization
With the conquest of Egypt by the Muslims in 641 AD, the Muslims, who were fluent or familiar with Persian, Arabic, Greek, etc., took over many of the Egyptian and Greek sources in the scientific centers of Alexandria and translated them into Arabic. They translated and used the works of Aristotle and his medical books. With the founding of the city of Baghdad in 762 AD by Mansour, the Abbasid caliph, and the establishment of large scientific centers there, many Egyptian and Greek teachers and alchemists turned to Baghdad.
Thus, the advanced technology of the Egyptians was transferred to the Islamic world and reached its perfection by the great alchemists of Islam. A treatise on alchemy entitled Fi’at al-‘Alam al-Sana’ah and… has been attributed to Imam Ja’far Sadegh (as) (148-83 AH), translated into German by Roska and published in 1934, which shows the properties of two types of oxides, namely oxides. They studied yellow and red oxides (potassium ferrocyanide and potassium ferric cyanide) and were familiar with the scientific method of their preparation and their use in gold and silver refining processes.
Famous Islamic alchemists
Jaber Ibn Hayyan (200-107 AH, 700 AD)
He was a student of Imam Ja’far Sadegh (AS) and had gained so much experience in this science that some call alchemy the science of Jabir. Obtained nitric acid.
Mohammad Ibn Zakaria Razi (925-866 AH)
He wrote a book on alchemy called Serrarasrar, which was translated into German by Roska and published in 1937. He was able to obtain alcohol from the distillation of sugars and hydrochloric acid from the distillation of soft drinks.
Ibn Sina (1036-890 AD)
He was the first physician to scientifically extract plant materials and use them to treat his patients, and he wrote a book on alchemy.
Abu Nasr al-Farabi and Abu Rihan al-Biruni also made significant contributions to the advancement of alchemy.